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Citizenship in Vietnam

Citizenship in Vietnam

Foreign citizens living in Vietnam for a minimum period of 5 years based on permanent residency qualify for citizenship. The procedure to secure a Vietnamese passport is not complicated and can lead to significant benefits for its holder. If you want to move here and are interested in acquiring Vietnamese nationality, our lawyers can help you.

 Quick Facts  
Assistance provided by specialized immigration lawyer (YES/NO) Yes, assistance provided by our immigration lawer 

 Persons eligible for citizenship

– foreign citizens who have lived here for sufficient years,

– investors,

– foreign citizens married to Vietnamese citizens,

– descendents of Vietnamese citizens

Requirements for citizenship by naturalization

5 years of living in Vietnam based on permanent residency

 Availability for citizenship by descent (YES/NO)


Citizenship by marrige possibility (YES/NO)

Yes, citizenship can be acquired after living here for 5 years

Citizenship by investment requirements

– minimum investment 3 million VND for a 12-month residence permit,

– maximum investment 100 million VND for a 5-year residence permit followed by citizenship

Real estate acquisition through citizenship by investment (YES/NO)


Timeframe to obtain citizenship by naturalization

5 years

Timeframe to obtain citizenship by marriage

5 years

Timeframe to obtain citizenship by investment 5 years
Eligibility for citizenship by descent 

– children of Vietnamese citizens born outside Vietnam,

– children of foreign citizens who live in Vietnam as permanent residents

Immigration with family members allowed (YES/NO)

YES, through the investor visa

Visa-free access based on a Vietnamese passport

52 countries

 Dual citizenship permitted (YES/NO)


Benefits of permanent relocation to Vietnam

 – access to the business market for investors,

– good living standards,

– numerous opportunities in one of the largest economies in Southeast Asia

Below, we invite you to discover what it entails to obtain a passport here and how our Vietnamese lawyers can help you. If you decide on immigration to Vietnam, do not doubt in contacting us.

How can a person acquire citizenship in Vietnam?

Vietnam has become an appealing immigration destination for a few years now. The combination of the living conditions at lower prices compared to other Asian countries and the possibility of acquiring residency rather easily under recent amendments in the legislation attracts many foreigners who want to move to this part of the world. Some of them remain here and decide to apply for citizenship in Vietnam

The Law on Vietnamese Nationality is the main act providing for the ways through which citizenship can be obtained in this country. These are:

  • by birth;
  • by descent;
  • by naturalization.

However, it should be noted that citizenship by birth cannot be acquired automatically, it is available only under specific circumstances.

It is also worth noting that starting with 2009, dual citizenship in Vietnam is permitted under certain limited circumstances.

Considering each country has its own regulations, it is best to use the services of our immigration lawyers in Vietnam if you want to obtain citizenship here.

We also provide support in immigration to Vietnam. Our lawyers have worked with many foreign citizens in the past few years, helping many of them to move to this country under the requirements of law. Feel free to contact us and let us be your guide for relocation. We offer tailored support.

If you are married to a Vietnamese national, you can acquire a 5-year temporary resident visa, which can be extended for as long as you are married. If you want to apply for residency in Vietnam through this means, you can rely on our lawyers for support in drafting the necessary documents. Contact us for support!

We have also created an infographic on this subject:

Conditions for a person to be granted citizenship in Vietnam

Naturalization is the most common way most people apply for citizenship in Vietnam, however, apart from filing the application, one must first make sure he/she meets the following criteria:

  • he/she has adhered to the Vietnamese legal requirements and knows the requirements a citizen of this country must comply with;
  • he/she respects the traditions, customs, and habits of Vietnam’s ethnic groups;
  • he/she abides by the laws and the constitution of Vietnam.
  • he/she is fluent in Vietnamese;
  • he/she has lived in Vietnam for 5 years prior to submitting an application for naturalization;
  • he/she is able to maintain oneself after becoming a citizen of this country.

Another requirement is for a foreign citizen to take up a Vietnamese name which must be specified explicitly in the citizenship application decision.

Our immigration lawyers in Vietnam can inform you about all these requirements and can also guide you on the name conditions when applying for citizenship.

There are also a few situations in which some of the requirements above do not apply. In the case of citizenship by naturalization in Vietnam, the 5-year residency requirement no longer applies to a Vietnamese national’s:

  • spouse;
  • parents;
  • children.

Also, people who have made a significant contribution to the national economy no longer need to keep Vietnamese residency for a 5-year timeframe.

If you consider that applying for a Vietnamese passport is complicated, you can rely on the expertise of our local law firm.

How to obtain citizenship by birth in Vietnam

As mentioned earlier, Vietnamese nationality is available only under certain criteria, as most foreign citizens apply for it based on naturalization.

People who are born in Vietnam are not granted citizenship automatically unless they have stateless parents who have applied for permanent residency and the child/children must have a nationality. Abandoned children also granted citizenship in Vietnam in 2024.

Our lawyers can offer more information on how to acquire permanent residency in Vietnam as a stateless person.

Citizenship by descent in Vietnam

It is possible to obtain citizenship in Vietnam in 2024 if a person has origins in this country. By this, the following must be entailed:

  1. the person has Vietnamese parents;
  2. the person has at least one Vietnamese parent, while the other is a stateless;
  3. the person has at least one Vietnamese parent and other parent is a foreign national who has obtained permanent residency here (the child must have been born in Vietnam).

If you are interested in immigration to Vietnam and applying for Vietnamese nationality, naturalization is the best way to achieve that.

The labor contract is one of the necessary documents for foreigners who wish to work in this country. For this purpose, the expat will also be issued a residence permit for Vietnam which will enable him or her to live here for the duration of the employment. If you need support in obtaining these documents, please contact us.

Together with our lawyers you can also check and see if you meet Vietnam‘s dual citizenship requirements for 2024.

How to obtain Vietnamese nationality through naturalization in 2024

Naturalization is the traditional way through which a foreign citizen obtains citizenship in Vietnam after living here based on permanent residency.

A foreign citizen who has lived in Vietnam for 5 years based on a permanent resident card is eligible to become a permanent resident. Apart from this, he or she must also meet the following requirements:

  • to respect the Vietnamese Constitution and have full mental capacity, as requested by the Nationality Law;
  • to have a good knowledge of the Vietnamese language;
  • to be able to support him/herself.

The application must be filed with the Justice Department and must contain the following supporting documents:

  • a copy of the permanent residence visa;
  • copies of the birth certificate, passport, or other identification documents;
  • a CV;
  • a clean criminal record for the duration of stay in Vietnam;
  • proof of speaking Vietnamese (diplomas from courses or training of Vietnamese);
  • proof of self-sustenance and having a place to live.

You don’t need to worry about the documents to file for obtaining Vietnamese nationality, as our law firm can offer support in this sense. We will verify your dossier to make sure it is complete before filing it.

When it comes to dual citizenship in Vietnam, is available for the following categories of persons:

  • investors who contribute to the Vietnamese economy;
  • persons married to Vietnamese citizens.

Our immigration lawyers in Vietnam can offer more information on this matter, as well as on how to immigrate to Vietnam through other means.

Citizenship by marriage in Vietnam

Vietnam does not recognize the concept of citizenship by marriage, therefore those who want to apply for nationality this way must consider naturalization. If you are wondering what happens in case of divorce, please note that Vietnamese citizens who marry foreign nationals or stateless people and get divorced do not lose their nationality.

In other words, the foreign spouse’s nationality remains unaffected, as it was obtained through naturalization. You can address our Vietnamese lawyers for support in matters related to divorce, as well.

What is the easiest way to obtain citizenship in Vietnam?

By far, citizenship by descent is the simplest to obtain in Vietnam, as it comes with no residency requirements. However, when applying for nationality this way, there are other aspects to consider. Among them:

  • the fact that one needs to prove kinship;
  • when it comes to citizenship by birth, the parents must complete various procedures to have their children’s nationality recognized.

Another important aspect to notice is that the Vietnamese State does not automatically provide citizenship to those born there. Exceptions include children born in Vietnam to stateless parents who remain there permanently, and children found abandoned on Vietnamese soil. This is another reason for why Vietnamese citizenship by descent is one of the easiest ways to acquire a passport.

Rights acquired when becoming a Vietnamese national

No matter if one was naturalized or has obtained citizenship by descent in Vietnam, he or she will obtain the same rights. These are:

  • the right to live in Vietnam with all benefits, among which voting rights, access to healthcare and education;
  • the right to private life and protection of reputation;
  • the right to a legal residence (home).

Apart from these, one should also consider that after becoming a citizen of Vietnam, he or she will become liable for paying taxes as any other national. From this point of view, one can consider the services of our accountants in Vietnam.

Dual citizenship in Vietnam

Vietnam does not regularly accept dual citizenship. This means that foreign citizens obtaining Vietnamese passports must give up their former ones. However, there are also exceptions to this rule. Among these, US citizens can retain their American citizenship.

According to the 2008 Nationality Law, a person who has obtained Vietnamese citizenship and has also retained his/her first nationality must meet all the following conditions:

  • the respective persons must not use their first citizenship to harm the interests of key Vietnamese organizations and agencies, including the economy of the country;
  • they must have obtained their citizenship under the new Vietnam law of 2008;
  • they must keep their former citizenship by abiding by the Vietnamese laws;
  • giving up their original passports will affect their interests in their respective country.

Dual citizenship in Vietnam is a sensitive matter, which is why we recommend using our designated services when it comes to this aspect. This is one of the reasons why many foreigners choose to retain Vietnamese permanent residency instead of applying for passports.

Loss of citizenship in Vietnam

The first and most important aspect to consider giving up Vietnamese citizenship is that if it compromises national security, the authorities will not enable such a decision. This exception refers to:

  • individuals working for the military forces;
  • those who owe taxes and/or other commitments;
  • individuals facing charges or completing a sentence.

However, Vietnamese law allows voluntary renunciation for justifiable grounds.

There are also cases in which a person’s Vietnamese nationality may be revoked without their consent if they engage in actions that substantially harm Vietnam’s interests while they are overseas.

If you have obtained citizenship and want to give it up, you can consult with our immigration lawyers in Vietnam on the procedure.

Reapplying for citizenship in Vietnam

The categories of people allowed to reapply for Vietnamese passports without having to renounce their former ones are:

  • parents, spouses, or children of Vietnamese citizens;
  • people who have had a significant contribution to the wellbeing of the country;
  • people whose help is vital to the Vietnamese State.

According to Government Decree 16/2020/, issued on February 3rd 2020, one must submit proof of Vietnamese citizenship as specified in Article 11 of the Nationality Law in order to obtain a certificate of citizenship.

The application for a certificate of citizenship must specifically include a written declaration completed on a specific form, 4 recent pictures, and a copy of one of the documents listed below:

  • proof of birth under the form of a birth certificate;
  • a valid ID;
  • a valid passport.

Get in touch with us for assistance in reapplying for citizenship in Vietnam.

Benefits of holding a Vietnamese passport

Just like in other countries, after immigration to Vietnam, securing citizenship comes with certain advantages. For example:

  • with a Vietnamese passport, you are able to travel to, remain in, and live permanently within the country without the requirement for a visa or other type of stay extension;
  • freedom to travel to ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) countries including Singapore, Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines;
  • access to property ownership is simple;
  • possibility to opening a bank account;
  • free access to the labor and business markets;
  • simplified legal procedures, no matter the case.

You can also watch our video on this subject:

Why immigrate to Vietnam in 2024?

According to the Ministry of Labour, there are around 83,500 foreigners living in Vietnam (according to 2019 data). The country’s total population is over 98 million inhabitants. Additionally, Vietnam has low living expenses. Even in Hanoi and Saigon, the typical monthly cost for a modest family, including rent and dining out, won’t be more than US$1,500. Since France once colonized Vietnam, French is frequently used as a second language. In urban areas, Mandarin Chinese is also frequently spoken. Vietnamese individuals are fluent in English in major urban areas, although English speakers may find it difficult in more rural settings.

Vietnam is the 3rd most populous country in Southeast Asia, behind Indonesia and the Philippines, and the 15th most populous country in the world with a population of about 99.5 million. Given that the country has achieved productivity and economic growth over the past few decades, the current demographics are favorable for a stable economy. The population of working age made up around 67 million people at the level of 2021 or 67% of the overall population. Vietnam’s senior population is expected to account for 10% to slightly less than 20% of the country’s total population by 2035 due to falling birth rates and rising life expectancy. Vietnamese people typically live to be 75 years old, which is quite long for a middle-income nation.

Vietnam is a great place to live for expats, and the communities of foreign citizens have grown considerably in the past few years. According to recent data:

  • the total population of Vietnam was 99.5 million at the level of 2022;
  • out of these, 100,000 were expats;
  • by 2050, Vietnam is expected to become one of the 20 largest economies in the world.

If you want to relocate to Vietnam and want to apply for citizenship, do not hesitate to contact our local lawyers who can support you with various services based on your country of origin.